Image 1 contextualizes cerebrospinal neuroanatomy, zooming in on a C3/4 transverse section where many trapezius nerves enter and exit the spinal cord. Image 2 zooms in on the spinal cord, showing the pain stimulus (X), the site of referred pain (ʔ), and all pain modulation models outlined in this paper: original ascending pain (red), potential modulation (blue, including referred pain (a), gate control (b), and descending modulation (spinal: c, cerebral neuromatrix: d)), as well as the resulting signal perceived (purple).

Figure 2: Main pain theories in context

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