Images 1 and 2 show the brainstem’s medulla oblongata, pons and midbrain; the amygdala and the cingulate, insular and somatosensory cortices; and the thalamus and hypothalamus. Nociception ascends (red) in Image 3, and is modulated by cerebral affects (yellow) and direct brainstem input (violet), perhaps via the medulla oblongata’s nucleus raphe magnus and the midbrain’s periaqueductal grey matter.

Figure 9: Pain in the brain

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.